In the last fifteen years, the Linux desktop has gone from a collection of marginally adequate solutions to an unparalleled source of innovation and choice. Many of its standard features are either unavailable in Windows, or else available only as a proprietary extension. As a result, using Linux is increasingly not only a matter of principle, but of preference as well.
Yet, despite this progress, gaps remain. Some are missing features, others missing features, and still others pie-in-the sky extras that could be easily implemented to extend the desktop metaphor without straining users’ tolerance of change.
China has banned use of Windows 8 in government offices. Windows 8 is the latest version of Windows which is already facing hard time due to its revamped user interface. Chinese decision is a major blow for Microsoft which is struggling to find its place in the post PC era as Windows market shares are declining and it’s hard core partners are adopting Linux based Chrome OS. The move comes at an interesting time as the US government has filed criminal charges against China accusing them of economic espionage.
“All desktops, laptops and tablet PCs to be purchased by central state organs must be installed with OS other than Windows 8, according to an online statement by the Central Government Procurement Center,” reports Chinese news agency Xinhua.
Most government computers in China (over 70%) still run Windows XP which stopped getting support this April, turning all these computers into low hanging fruits for hackers (NSA must be happy with this situation). China supposedly don’t want to make the same mistake and would rather invest resources in developing its own GNU/Linux based operating system.
“Why should one bother learning the command line? The Graphical User Interface is much easier.” To a certain extent you would be right, but thing is that Some tasks are best suited to a GUI, at the same time, some tasks are more suited to the command line.
Command line is one of the powerful tool by which you can do the tedious jobs with the help of one or two commands. Like all other OS’s, Linux command line programs generally come with their own documentation too; manual pages or man pages for short. Linux has origins in the command line, and there can be many times when you will not be running a GUI. On some systems, such as a dedicated server, you may not have a GUI installed at all.
To simplify the things at beginning, I am introducing you to some basic but very useful commands.
The “uname” command stands for (Unix Name), print detailed information about the machine name, Operating System and Kernel.
sahil@bodhi:~$ uname -a
Linux bodhi 3.11.0-19-generic #33-Ubuntu SMP Tue Mar 11 18:48:32 UTC 2014 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux
Note: uname shows type of kernel. uname -a output detailed information.
“Linux“: The machine’s kernel name.
“bodhi“: The machine’s node name.
“3.11.0-19-generic “: The kernel release.
“33-Ubuntu SMP“: The kernel version.
“i686“: The architecture of the processor.
“GNU/Linux“: The operating system name.
The command “ls” stands for (List Directory Contents), List the contents of the folder, be it file or folder, from which it runs.
The command “ls -l” list the content of folder, in long listing fashion.
Desktop Documents Downloads examples.desktop Music Pictures Public Templates Untitled 1.odt Videos
sahil@bodhi:~$ ls -l
drwxr-xr-x 2 sahil sahil 4096 Apr 23 11:06 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x 3 sahil sahil 4096 Apr 14 12:54 Documents
drwxr-xr-x 4 sahil sahil 4096 May 15 18:55 Downloads
-rw-r--r-- 1 sahil sahil 8980 Feb 13 23:28 example
The “mkdir” (Make directory) command create a new directory with name path. However is the directory already exists, it will return an error message “cannot create folder, folder already exists”.
Directory can only be created inside the folder, in which the user has write permission. In Linux every file, folder, drive, command, scripts are treated as file.
The “touch” command stands for Update the access and modification times of FILE to the current time. touch command creates the file, only if it doesn’t exist. If the file already exists it will update the timestamp and not the contents of the file.
The Linux “chmod” command stands for (change file mode bits). chmod changes the file mode / permission of each given file, folder, script, etc.. according to mode asked for. There exist 3 types of permission on a file (folder or anything but to keep things simple we will be using file). Read (r)=4, Write(w)=2, Execute(x)=1
So if you want to give only read permission on a file it will be assigned a value of ‘4‘, for write permission only, a value of ‘2‘ and for execute permission only, a value of ‘1‘ is to be given. For read and write permission 4+2 = ‘6‘ is to be given, ans so on.
Now permission need to be set for 3 kinds of user and usergroup. The first is owner, then group and finally others.
-rw-r--r-- 1 sahil sahil 0 May 19 14:01 newfile
Here the, user has rw (read and write) permission, group has r (read only) and for others is r (read only ).
To change its permission and provide read, write and execute permission to owner, group and others. We can give following command,
Mother’s Day is Sunday, and most of you are about to run out and buy flowers and chocolates. However, I believe that there is a gift that your mother will be more grateful for: a Chromebook. Your mom has probably been using the same Windows computer for years, so it is outdated and extremely slow. She has needed a new computer for years, but is stubborn and will not go purchase a new one. That leaves your mother’s computing happiness and comfortability up to you.
The easy, yet thoughtful, Mother’s Day Gift
You first option would be to go over and install Linux on the computer for free, but then you would have the headache of her calling you every time she gets on the computer. Your other option is to purchase a new Windows computer for her, but that could get very pricey, with most good Windows PCs coming in at $400 to $500 (unless you go bargain hunting, which could take even more time and effort than necessary). Instead, give her a mothers day gift that will simplify her life and requires little to no technical support from you.
Chromebooks are an easy switch for Moms
If your mother has already been using the Google Chrome browser, then the switch will be simple and painless. If your mother is not using the Chrome browser, then there has never been a better time to have her switch. Many mothers day gifts are thoughtless and common: flowers, chocolates, gift cards. These are gifts every mom gets. Giving your mom a Chromebook will not only single her out of the crowd as important enough to have thought put into her gift, but also it will give her something to brag about when she gets with her friends on what their children got them. When she explains what you got her, compared to every other mom that got flowers, she will feel like a queen.
Now, after going over the common sense reasons why your mom would want a Chromebook for her day, here are the technical reasons why she would love a Chromebook. Many of you probably found this article looking for ‘mothers day ideas’ or ‘gifts for mom.’ The reason why a Chromebook is the best of all mothers day gift ideas is because they are the perfect combination of a tablet and a PC. Currently, the tablet market is booming, and everyone is buying one. However, past generations do not like the idea of touchscreens and using tablets as their PC, like the current generation does. These people, like your mom, prefer using traditional PCs because they are familiar, and there is no touch screen that will confuse them and perform the wrong function.
Android and iOS can be disorienting to a person who is used to the point and click set-up of Windows. Chromebooks meet in the middle, being fast and simple like a tablet, but in the familiar setup of a laptop. Since Chrome OS is a browser, your mom already knows how to use it. She probably already has used online applications that would work on a Chromebook, especially if she is already using the Chrome browser.
Simple and Speedy
Chrome OS was built around a Linux kernel, meaning that it is a Linux based OS (operating system). This makes the system lightweight and speeding, only needing Intel’s Celeron chip. Majority of the Chromebooks available now run on an Intel processor, the most popular one being a dual-core Celeron processor. Although these processors have created bad names for themselves on Windows machines, they are great for Chromebooks. I use an HP Chromebook 14 as my personal computer, and I find it to be faster than my Intel Core i3 Windows desktop.
In addition, Chromebooks only need 2GB of memory, though many would agree that 4GB leads to a smoother experience. However, I believe that your mother probably would not need more than 2GB of memory, since she will only be using the computer to get on Facebook and look up recipes. However, if you want to future proof the Chromebook, and just get your mom the extra 2GB of memory, manufacturers do offer Chromebooks with 4GB of memory.
Another reason why a Chromebook would be the best gift for your mother is that everything is saved in the cloud. If she takes her Chromebook to the beach, and drops in the water some how, all of her data and settings are saved in the cloud, ready for her when she signs into her replacement Chromebook. With a Windows computer, if they get destroyed, then everything is gone, unless your mother does regular backups (which I doubt). In addition, she can access all of her data on any computer with internet access, since most of her files are saved to Google Drive. All she has to do is log in to her Google Drive through a web browser, and she instantly has access to all of her files.
Since Chrome OS is Linux based, the possibility of your mother getting a virus, malware, or any thing else that destroys computers, is almost nonexistent. In addition, Google has built an anti-virus into the OS, and Google updates it every time they find new bugs or security holes. Lastly, Google designed Chrome OS to only install programs that are downloaded from the Chrome Web Store. These include all of the apps, extensions and themes available for the Chrome browser. This prevents your mom from being able to download something that is actually a virus or anything else that could damage her computer. Although she may not be able to use her favorite print shop program, the Chrome Web Store will more than likely offer an alternative that has everything she needs.
The last reason why you should get your mom a Chromebook is their value. Currently, the most expensive Chromebook available for purchase is the HP Chromebook 14 at $299 or $349, depending on which version you get. This is the one I purchased, since it has the largest screen for a Chromebook, and has Intel’s new Haswell Celeron processors. (For more on my thoughts of the HP Chromebook 14, click here). Most other Chromebooks only cost $199 to $299, and that is if you purchase it new. Chromebooks can be purchased used, and still seem like a brand new laptop, as long as they look new cosmetically.
This may seem expensive as a mother’s day gift, but do not think about it as a one time gift, but as a long term investment. Your mother will never have to purchase a new computer again, since Chromebooks are built to last forever and come with free updates. She will never have to purchase antivirus again, nor any other software, since most of the apps on the Chrome Web Store are free. (For a guide on the Chrome Web Store, click here). By purchasing your mom a Chromebook, you save her from ever having to worry about her computer again. This saves both your mom and you time and money.
The LG Chromebase, the first all-in-one Chrome OS PC, has been announced to be made available to US customers on May 26. With 2 GB of memory, a 16GB SSD (solid state drive), and a dual-core Intel Haswell CPU, LG has followed the usual specifications found on most Chromebooks. For those unfamiliar with Chromebooks, these specifications would probably be seem insufficient. However, what makes Chromebooks and the Chromebase stand out, is that they run Google’s Chrome OS. Chrome OS is based upon Linux, so is very light and does not need many resources. In addition, since it only runs internet applications, it does not need many resources.
The Chromebase, though, stands out from the crowd of Chromebooks, because it is the first all-in-one PC running Chrome OS. With a 21.5 inch screen that has an IPS full HD display, it is a great all-in-one, and it only costs $349.
The device will be available for preorder on May 12, and will begin shipping on May 26. It will be available for preorder on Amazon, Newegg, and Tiger Direct, and includes a wired keyboard and mouse that have been customized for Chrome OS.
The device has 3 USB 2.0 ports on the back, and 1 USB 3.0 and headphone jack on the side. The bottom is lined with a MENU button for the display, the SD card reader, and power button. In addition, the back has an HDMI in port, so the PC can also be used as a second display. The PC also has built in speakers, and the usual 100 GB of Google Drive storage for two years is also included.
On Tuesday it was announced that Google Web Designer, a program devoted to creating interactive HTML5 components, is now available in beta for four major Linux distributions. The distributions now supported are Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSUSE, and Fedora. The program had originally been available for only Mac 10.7.x or above and Windows 7 and above. This moves the program, which is primarily for making HTML5-based animations for ads, solidly into the territory of the Linux users in web design, presumably a field which has a higher percentage of Linux users than the general population.
The program is capable of creating full-featured HTML5 sites, but also allows users to directly export to an ad network like Google’s own DoubleClick or AdMob networks. It features both a code view and design view, and is capable of creating detailed animations that don’t require a special player to use, just a browser. Clearly, Google wants to make it easier for high-quality ads to reach its networks, which makes up roughly half of the Internet advertising market, and this product reaches out to help their publishing clients do that.
The user isn’t restricted to that though, they are free to take the code created with Google Web Designer and create full HTML sites on their own, a valuable side effect that might make the program a good addition to any web designer’s toolbox, especially when it comes to creating animations, which GWD excels at doing.
Ubuntu 14.04 LTS is going to be released today, April 17, depending on where you are. Since this is an LTS release and arguably one of the most feature complete and stable releases till date, users will be very eager to upgrade from earlier versions of Ubuntu.This post is a guide on how to to upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS from various earlier versions of Ubuntu.
Upgrade from Ubuntu 12.04.x LTS to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
First up, is the upgrade procedure from the older LTS release, 12.04. Precise pangolin was the first LTS released with Unity. It wasn’t the best when it was released but slowly with consistent updates, it became a good LTS release. Canonical will provide updates to Ubuntu 12.04 untill 2017.
Users upgrading from the previous LTS will need to check if update checker is enabled in Software & Updates
“Notify me of a new Ubuntu version” should have For long-term support versions selected
Run update-manager from the dash to check
If no update is found, then refresh the repositories to check again
The notification for a new release will show up in the top
Then select Upgrade
If your system/graphics card is not compatible with Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, you may receive the following message
If you want to continue, click yes
Select Start Upgrade to start the download and installation of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS packages
If you want to keep your settings, select default options when questions pop up during upgrade
Remove the obsolete packages as this will free up space
If however, you see Ubuntu is removing some packages you require, hit the Keep button
Reboot once the Restart pop-up message appears
Enjoy the new stable Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
Upgrading from Ubuntu 12.10/13.04
Upgrading from 13.04 to 14.04 is officially not supported but I have had success multiple times. This will involve a little bit of command line – 6 steps to be precise. Ubuntu 12.10 is another release which is reaching EOL in April . To upgrade from Ubuntu 12.10, replace raring with quantal in the steps below
1.Change the Ubuntu code name from Raring Ringtail to Trusty Tahr
sudo sed -i 's/raring/trusty/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
2. Disable third party PPAs (optional, see note)
sudo rename 's/(.*)/$1.bak/' *
sudo find . -type f -name "*" -print | xargs sed -i 's/raring/trusty/g'
3. Update the repositories and upgrade
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
4. Reinstall ubunut-desktop package
sudo apt-get install --reinstall ubuntu-desktop
5. Update grub and initramfs
sudo update-grub && sudo update-initramfs -u
6. Reboot your machine
Upgrading from Ubuntu 13.10
Upgrading from Ubuntu 13.10 to Ubuntu 14.04 is very simple. You will have to follow the same steps as given in the first section – upgrade Ubuntu 12.04.x to Ubuntu 14.04.
Press Alt+F2 and type update-manager -d
The new update manager displays the available Ubuntu 14.04 in a slightly different UI
Authenticate to continue with upgrade
Continue following the on-screen instructions and select default values when asked for input
It used to be a rallying cry, then it turned into speculation and finally it became a joke: That the next year, or the one after that, or very soon at least, would be “the year of the Linux desktop”. Even the meaning of the term has changed a bit, depending on the time and the publication. Maybe it means the year when Linux will be a majority operating system on desktop computers. Maybe it means that Linux accounts for a significantly increased share of the market.
Maybe it just means getting over our inferiority complex.
Of course, while we waited and promoted and encouraged and evangelized, everywhere but the desktop was racing ahead. Embedded gadgets? We rule that. Servers? Doing good. Super computers? Complete dominance. Android? Basically rules the world. Chrome OS? Selling very well.
Some have argued that those are the areas that should matter anyway, that we should take the broad view of what “computing” means. Today, people increasingly use their phones, tablets and other light, portable devices. If we can push Linux there, then we’re still winning, whatever that means.
I’d like to argue that the year of the Linux desktop already came and went. We just didn’t notice it.
Majority share on the desktop would be nice, sure. First class up to date hardware support for every piece of hardware that comes out? Yeah, that’d be great too. More support from big software developers? We’d all like that.
But as I have been using Linux in the past several years, it has increasingly occurred to me: We’re at a point where we have a large number of incredibly polished distributions available. You can run a Linux system for a standard user without barely ever touching the terminal. There’s a wealth of software, both applications and games available, most hardware works without any worry, and the days of manually editing xorg.conf, our old best friend, are pretty much gone.
In the last half year, I’ve run Ubuntu, Debian, Kubuntu, Elementary OS, openSUSE and Antergos. In each case, I simply loaded it on a USB stick, put it in, installed and rebooted. Fully functioning system that let me do the things I needed to do.
Yeah, there are differences between those (and maybe I skewed the results by having 2 Ubuntu derivatives) but in the end, it “just worked”. I didn’t have to spend hours configuring everything just to get basic functionality.
Can we get bigger? Of course we can, and we should. We can still make huge improvements in terms of availability. But for the average desktop user, we’re here already. The year came and went and we didn’t notice, because we were busy doing the things on our computer that we wanted to do. Everything that happens from here on out is a pleasant bonus, on top of an already fantastic experience.
Agree? Disagree? Contribute a comment below and let me know if you feel we are there yet, and if we are, when that happened.
The Linux kernel developers and systemd developers locked horns this week over a bug in systemd which would stop systems from booting up. The bug was filed by Borislav Petkov where he explained that systemd bug was not allowing him to log into the machine. Kay Sievers, the co-author of systemd, suggested kernel developers not to use ‘generic’ term “debug”, “Like for the kernel, there are options to fin-grain control systemd’s logging behaviour; just do not use the generic term “debug” which is a convenience shortcut for the kernel AND the Base OS.”
That’s what started a heated debate on LKML where Linus scolded Kay for not fixing his own problems.
Key, I’m f*cking tired of the fact that you don’t fix problems in the code *you* write, so that the kernel then has to work around the problems you cause.
Greg – just for your information, I will *not* be merging any code from Kay into the kernel until this constant pattern is fixed.
This has been going on for *years*, and doesn’t seem to be getting any better. This is relevant to you because I have seen you talk about the kdbus patches, and this is a heads-up that you need to keep them separate from other work. Let distributions merge it as they need to and maybe we can merge it once it has been proven to be stable by whatever distro that was willing to play games with the developers.
But I’m not willing to merge something where the maintainer is known to not care about bugs and regressions and then forces people in other projects to fix their project. Because I am *not* willing to take patches from people who don’t clean up after their problems, and don’t admit that it’s their problem to fix.
Kay – one more time: you caused the problem, you need to fix it. None of this “I can do whatever I want, others have to clean up after me” crap.
Then Lennart Poettering, another author of systemd, took it to Google+ to clarify things and said (read entire comment here),
For me it is out of question though that systemd and other core os components should continue to parse the ‘debug’ kernel cmdline option, and increase their debug levels then. Generic options like that are supposed to be useful for real people, and there’s a long history of options like that which influence both kernel and userspace (quiet, root=, …). We are putting together an OS here after all, not just a kernel, and a kernel is just one component of the OS among many, and ultimately an implementation detail. We are writing an OS here for the general purpose, not just a toy for a clique of kernel developers. Moreover, there are individual kernel cmdline options for both the kernel itself and systemd to control just their log levels, and nothing else. so if you want finegrained control, you already have it, ‘debug’ is just the simple option that groups them all under a single oneshot option. It’s the option an admin can specify which tells him why the system doesnt boot, regardless whether the kernel or systemd is at fault or any other part of the core os involved in boot. Thats simply userfriendly.
Ok, so exactly what was the problem with “systemd.debug” again?
I guess this does mean that we have to apply my patch to rate-limit messages into the kernel. Fine, I don’t hate that patch, but I do hate the fact that systemd seems to think “we’re being ass-holes, and it’s not our problem, others should protect themselves against our f*cked up aways”.
So this really really doesn’t make me want to ever work with Kay Sievers, because this all just reinforces the fact that he just doesn’t care if his changes cause other projects pain.
In the kernel, we have that “no regressions” rule for a damn good reason. For example, it is not a valid excuse to say “well, user space shouldn’t have done that to begin with, so now we can break it”.
But Kay seems to think that breaking other peoples workflow and uses is fine. And is totally unapologetic about it, and closes bug reports when it happens, and dismisses the obvious and reasonable fix.
+Greg Kroah-Hartman: I really hoped that you could push the trivial and obvious one-liner through. What’s going on here? Instead you are spreading Kay’s unapologetic crap.
Linus was really angry with Kay when he said, “Would you want to work with a person who makes it very clear (over and over again) that he doesn’t care if he causes you pain? Seriously?”
This is not new or controversial for the Linux developers to have heated discussions over issues. These are ‘the’ people who build Linux and things do get heated up before they settle down.
With hiring managers beefing up their plans to bring aboard talent with Linux skills over the next six months, a bright future awaits those professionals who know Linux.
Tech recruitment firm Dice and The Linux Foundation have released the 2014 edition of the Linux Jobs Report. The two found that the growing demand for Linux talent is “driving salaries for Linux above industry norms.”
“Enterprises are increasingly describing Linux as a core part of the business,” said Shravan Goli, president of Dice. “In turn, hiring managers are turning up the dial on the incentives offered to technology talent with Linux skills. These professionals are working on projects tightly aligned with a future vision of what enterprises look like.”
This is the third annual Linux Jobs Report produced by Dice and The Linux Foundation. It aims to help the industry comprehend what is contributing to Linux job trends and also keep employers updated about the best ways to recruit and retain key Linux talent.
“While demand continues to grow for Linux talent, there remains a shortage of experienced Linux professionals on the market. This year’s Linux Jobs Report clearly illustrates this issue,” said Jim Zemlin, executive director at The Linux Foundation.
Key statistics from the report include:
Finding Linux talent is becoming more of a priority for hiring managers. Seventy seven percent of hiring managers have “hiring Linux talent” on their list of priorities for 2014, up from 70 percent a year ago. With these strategic priorities set, more than nine in ten hiring managers plan to hire a Linux professional in the next six months.
Hiring managers are increasing the number of Linux professionals they are searching for. Forty six percent of hiring managers are beefing up their plans for recruiting Linux talent over the next six months, representing a three-point increase from hiring managers’ plans in 2013.
Knowing Linux advances careers. Eight-six percent of Linux professionals report that knowing Linux has given them more career opportunities, and 64 percent say they chose to work with Linux because of its pervasiveness in modern-day technology infrastructure.
The 2014 Linux Jobs Report includes data from 1,100 hiring managers and 4,000 Linux professionals to learn what’s been going on in the Linux job market.